Sunday, May 29, 2016

Two good days

Getting back on the horse:

Mon – Rest (travel)

Tue am – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 37:27 (3:57's)

Tue pm – Claregalway 10.0km easy run 42:00 (4:12's)

Wed – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 38:03 (4:00's)

Thu – Claregalway 12.7km recovery run 46:49 (3:41's)

Fri – Claregalway 14.8km easy run 1:00:00 (4:03's)

Sat – Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 55:46 (3:46's)

Sun – 2km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:55 (3:12’s), 1.2km down. All up 13,2kms

Total for week 89.3km

Just easy/recovery running until I felt good. Then a couple of sessions to finish off the week on Saturday and Sunday.

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Night of the 10,000m PB's

The week that was:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 35:27 (3:44's)

Tue – 2km up, 5 mins LT, 6 x 90 secs off 60 secs, 2.4km down. All up 9.0km

Wed – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 39:25 (4:09's)

Thu – Treadmill 8.1km recovery run 30:00 (3:41’s) plus strides. All up 8.7km

Fri – Treadmill 5.0km easy run 22:41 (4:32’s)

Sat – Night of the 10,000m PB’s 32:17 (3:14’s). All up 11.7kms

Sun – Sprowston 8.8km easy run 38:38 (4:23’s)

Total for week 62.2km

Well it didn’t quite happen for me. Despite feeling nervous all week I wasn’t a bit nervous on the track. I’m not sure why. I settled into the run and by 1 mile I was toast. There was no build up to red-line – it just seemed to happen and I had nowhere to go. I never had any intention going with the lead group who were targeting 30 low so I was in pack #2 and I ended up in no mans-land. And I was simply hanging on….

The lap countdown was torture. In trouble with 20 laps to go and it was a slow grind home. Not sure why it didn’t happen. As a runner you always look for a reason – but I think it was just an off day. That said all times were down on the night – windy and humid conditions didn’t help. Perhaps the travel was a factor also. Who knows – a bad run and I’ll get over it. But it was a great experience and it is an event I’d like to have another crack at. The atmosphere was excellent and despite running poorly I know I’m in decent shape so hopefully I’ll come good soon.

I had my first beer within 2 minutes of crossing the finish line. It turned into the night of the 10,000m LP’s (London Prides). A good night followed watching the elite races and then into London until the early hours of the morning with my mate the Tank Driver. Great times.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

One week to go

A couple of sharpeners in here:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km easy run 38:48 (4:05's)

Tue – 6.3km up, 6 x 1km off 90 secs jog 200m at the track, 4.8km down. All up 18.1km

Wed – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:35 (3:51's)

Thu am – 2.0km up, 10 x 3 mins treadmill threshold, 1.2km down. All up 13.0km

Thu pm – Mayo AC easy 3.2kms

Fri – Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 55:54 (3:47's)

Sat – 2.0km up, 10km treadmill threshold 31:19, 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Sun – Claregalway 11.1km easy run 43:09 (3:53’s)

Total for week 93.2km

My first track session in about 7 months on Tuesday. A good group to train with and was happy to work up through the gears throughout the session. Times were 3:01, 2:58, 2:58, 2:58, 2:57 and 2:57. Very happy with that but it didn’t come easy. Happy to hang on and the last rep was my quickest (2:56.5).

More treadmill threshold work on Thursday (intervals) and Saturday (continuous). I didn’t push the session on Saturday as it was so hot that I thought I’d collapse. So kept a lid on it.

A big drink with the neighbours on Saturday night which took the edge off my Sunday run. Some people never learn….

One week to go. Some more short speed stuff on Tuesday and then easy running for the rest of the week. I'm in race 3 on Saturday which means I'll be one of the back-markers trying to hang on. The plan at this stage is to run the first 5km in 15:45 and then hang on....

Sunday, May 08, 2016

Getting close

Happy with how things are going – peaking nicely for the 10,000m in 2 weeks:

Mon - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:56 (3:42's)

Tue – 2km up, 10km threshold 31:04 (3:06’s), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Wed – Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:42 (3:40's)

Thu am – 2km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3 mins, 2.0km down. All up 11.0km

Thu pm – Mayo AC easy 4.9kms

Fri – Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:12 (3:37's)

Sat – 2km up, 5 x 2km, 2 x 1km threshold building into tempo, 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Sun – Clarinbridge 19.8km easy run 1:22:06 (4:09’s)

Total for week 95.7km

The kids off school this week so lots of treadmill running. I’m getting good at it!! New PB on Tuesday for my bog standard threshold run and I didn’t even hit top of zone so must be getting fit. Some good sessions on Thursday – running intervals at 3:00/km pace on 2% incline off a short 60 second recovery. Plus a good session on Saturday where I was upping the pace throughout the session with the last few efforts up above threshold.  A good long run with the lads to finish off the week.


No niggles at the moment and the body is holding up well. I’m planning a couple of track sessions in the next 2 weeks and that will be my final prep for the 10,000m….

Sunday, May 01, 2016

The Heart Rate Doesn't Lie....

Interrupted week:

Mon - Claregalway 11.1km recovery run 44:49 (4:02's)

Tue – Rest (sick)

Wed – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 42:49 (4:02's)

Thu – Treadmill 10km recovery run 36:00 (3:36’s)

Fri – 2km up, 10.0km threshold 31:15 (3:08’s), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Sat – Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 42:49 (3:48's)

Sun – 2km up, 5 x 2km, 2 x 1km threshold building into tempo, 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Total for week 75.4km


I was running with Fintan on Monday and it was a real struggle. Looked at the heart rate and it was 15 beats higher than normal. Took the decision to pull the pin and it was a slow jog home. Rested Tuesday and then did a light run on Wednesday (still no energy). Back into things on Thursday and finished the week strongly. Just a blip and nice to have a bit of a break I suppose.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Too much treadmill

Keep plugging away:

Mon - Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 57:51 (3:55's)

Tue – 2km up, 4 x 1.7km, 1 x 2km threshold, 2.0km down. All up 12.8km

Wed – Claregalway 11.1km recovery run 42:49 (3:51's)

Thu am – 2km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3 mins, 2.0km down. All up 11.1km

Fri – Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 56:01 (3:47's)

Sat – 2km up, 1 x 6.8km, 2 x 1.6km threshold, 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Sun – Athlone 5.8km easy run 28:00

Total for week 84.4km


Not a great week. All the main sessions (Tue/Thu/Sat) on the treadmill. Saturday was so hot I thought I was going to pass out. So had to cut the run short and add some intervals at the end as opposed to a continuous 10km. Still another week completed….

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Ballinrobe and Labane 10kms

A double bubble race week:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:01 (3:47's)

Tue am – 2km up, 12km threshold run 40:12 (3:21’s), 2.1km down. All up 16.1km

Tue pm – Tuam AC easy running 3.7km

Wed – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:22 (3:50's)

Thu am – 2km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3 mins, 2.0km down. All up 10.7km

Thu pm – Mayo AC easy running 4.0km

Fri – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 39:26 (4:09's)

Sat – Ballinrobe 10km 32:06. All up 17.3kms

Sun – Labane 10km 33:17. All up 17.3kms

Total for week 97.9km

Another good week in the bank. I raced Saturday evening to see where I’m at. I took the lead from the start and was never troubled. Into the wind the first 5km in around 16:16 and then turned for home and felt great the last 5km running 15:50 for a time of 32:06. It felt a bit quicker so disappointed not to break 32 mins.

Then a last minute decision to race again the next day. The legs felt heavy and I had another guy with me the first third of the race. Then I managed to break away and get a 20m gap but that gap didn’t grow so I had to keep pushing all the way to the finish. The legs had nothing and it felt much harder than the previous evening. Still nice to pick up a couple of wins even though it was a bit stupid to race on consecutive days.

Ballinrobe 10km:


Labane 10km:


Sunday, April 10, 2016

Can't close in on Leicester....

Progress:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km easy run 39:25 (4:09's)

Tue am – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:08 (3:48's)

Tue pm – Tuam AC easy running 4.8km

Wed – 2km up, 10km Treadmill threshold run 31:26 (3:09’s), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Thu am – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 37:27 (3:57's)

Thu pm – Mayo AC easy running 3.7km

Fri – 2km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3 mins, 2.0km down. All up 10.7km

Sat – Athenry 10km recovery run plus 4 hill sprints. All up 11.3km

Sun – 2km up, 10km Treadmill threshold run 31:20 (3:08’s), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Total for week 87.0km

The weather hasn’t been great so all the sessions this week were on the treadmill. The speed for the 10km threshold runs is starting to come down and it won’t be long before I’m back in pre-Xmas form (read close to PB shape). The interval session on Friday was a repeat of last week (3:00/km pace at 2% incline). It felt a lot more comfortable this week and HR was about 4 beats lower throughout the session. Again a good sign that things are on the up.

I decided to give up the booze to try and get the weight down a bit. That lasted 11 days and I then had a few cans over the weekend. I have to say I didn’t feel one bit better for the break. In fact I was miserable!


Good win for Spurs on Sunday and still in the title race (just!). And how good was the Masters!

Sunday, April 03, 2016

A man with a plan

Knuckling down time:

Mon - Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 54:48 (3:42's)

Tue – 2km up, 10km treadmill Z2 31:47 (3:11’s), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Wed – Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:22 (3:38's)

Thu – 2km up, 12km Claregalway Z2 40:42 (3:24’s), 2.1km down. All up 16.1km

Fri - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:12 (3:37's)

Sat – 2km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3 mins, 2.0km down. All up 10.7km

Sun – Claregalway 11.1km recovery run 42:05 (3:47's)

Total for week 86.7km

I’ve entered the Night to the 10,000m PB’s in Highgate, London on May 21st so that’s my focus now (sub 32 mins just to get an entry). I’ll run a few local races as tune-ups and the plan is to run 31:30 on the track in May. Should be a great night and once my race is out of the way it will be time to kick back with a beer and watch the big boys going for the Rio Qualifiers.

Training-wise – an okay week. The Saturday session was a killer and I did my usual protocol of 3:00/km pace at 2% incline. More of the same and the pace should start to improve over the next few weeks.

Sunday, March 27, 2016

Kilmovee 10km 2016

How not to prepare for a 10km race:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 37:31 (3:57's)

Tue am – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:14 (3:49's)

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 5.9km

Wed – 2km up, 10km treadmill Z2 31:35 (3:10’s), 1.6km down. All up 13.6km

Thu – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 37:02 (3:54's)

Fri - Treadmill 7.1km easy run 30:15 (4:15's)

Sat – Kilmovee 10km 33:32. All up 15.4km

Sun – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:40 (3:52's)

Total for week 80.0km

The legs were in bits Monday and Tuesday after the 10 miler. By Wednesday I was feeling okay so I did a threshold run on the treadmill. Big mistake – after that it felt like I’d ran a marathon and by the time the 10km came around on Saturday I wasn’t right. With hindsight I would have been better advised to take it easy all week with no sessions

Normally I would have been licking my lips as there was a good field for the 10km race. Conditions were tough – very breezy and I took it out fairly quick with the first km covered on around 3:05. I then settled into my running with another guy (Eamonn) and John Byrne as we battled the wind. Our group stayed together until around 4km by which time I was struggling – the other 2 didn’t speed up, I just slowed down and fell off the back!

The rest of the race I was hanging on watching the other 2 race each other up front. I did try one final push after turning at around 7km and getting some help from the wind but there was no closing in on the leaders. I then just kept ticking over the last couple of kms eventually crossing the line in 33:32 for 3rd place (well outside my course record of 32:17 from last year).

Not my greatest work but explainable – the legs just weren’t right and a shame I couldn’t give a better account of myself. Nevermind, onwards and upwards and just the kick up the behind I need to go back and start training a bit harder. Well done to Eamonn who won the race in 32:50 and to John who finished a close second and looks in great shape for the marathon.

Here’s a photo with my "please let this race be over" face on:


Sunday, March 20, 2016

Craughwell 10 mile 2016

Tuning up for the 10 miler:

Mon - Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 56:10 (3:48's)

Tue am – 2.0km up, 12km threshold run 40:46 (3:24’s), 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 7.1km

Wed - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:18 (3:38's)

Thu – 2.0km up, 6 x 30 secs, 6 x 3mins, 2.0km down. All up 10.7km

Fri - Claregalway 11.1km recovery run 41:41 (3:45's)

Sat - Claregalway 8.6km easy run 37:41 (4:23's)

Sun – Craughwell 10 miler 52:56 (3:16’s). All up 23.7kms

Total for week 102.0km

A decent enough build up to Craughwell. Pace getting back on my threshold run on Tuesday and then a speed session on the treadmill on Thursday as a final tune-up before the 10 miler (running at 3:00/km pace on 2% incline).

Some of the big names were missing this year and that opened things up. The conditions were perfect and I took out the race hard and nobody went with me. Through the first km in 2:57 (downhill) and sub 5 minutes for the first mile. By this stage I’d opened up a nice lead so it was time trial mode from here on in. I felt pretty good and the effort level was even and the splits were in keeping with the profile for each mile.

At halfway I had about a 30 second lead and through 10km in about 32:30 which was a little quicker than last year. But I didn’t really nail the last 6km and although I was running strongly, the pace dipped by a second or two per km. The last mile is tough and what breeze there was we were running into it. But there was nobody with me and I enjoyed the last section rounding the final corner for the final 200m to the finish. My first win in Craughwell at the 7th time of trying.

The time was 52:56 which was 15 seconds slower than last year so no PB but still a good strong run. It gives me hope that I still have it in me to break the 70 minutes for the half!

A few beers that night and why not! Here is me at the finish (courtesy of Edenhill77):


Sunday, March 13, 2016

Streets of Castlebar 5km

Back into things:

Mon - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:22 (3:38's)

Tue am – 2.0km up, 11km threshold run 38:09 (3:28’s), 3.0km down. All up 16.0km

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 8.3km

Wed - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:31 (3:39's)

Thu – 2.0km up, 12km threshold run 41:12 (3:26’s), 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Fri - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 36:33 (3:51's)

Sat - Claregalway 8.0km easy run 34:09 (4:16's)

Sun – Streets of Castlebar 5km 15:57. All up 9.6kms

Total for week 87.4km


Struggled this week. Pace way down on my two outdoor threshold runs. Wasn’t expecting much for the 5km. Myself and Tadgh took it out fairly hard and we were stride for stride the first 3km. Lots of hills and twists and when the course flattened out around the lake and I was fearing it would turn into a sprint finish. But I managed to open up a bit of a gap without lifting the pace. Then it was all about staying focused up to the finish. I crossed the line in 15:57 for the win which equalled the course record. Pleasantly surprised by the time as it felt more like a 16:15 run. Happy days and a nice finish to the week. Me at the end:


Sunday, March 06, 2016

Would you like fries with your fries?

Not proper training – just exercise to burn off the huge American calorie intake:

Mon – New York 13.7km easy run 54:54 (4:00’s)

Tue – New York 13.7km recovery run 51:53 (3:47’s)

Wed - New York 13.7km easy run 54:36 (3:59’s)

Thu – New York 13.7km recovery run 52:08 (3:48’s)

Fri - New York 13.7km easy run 57:41 (4:13’s)

Sat – Rest (travel)

Sun – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 39:37 (4:10's)

Total for week 78.0km

It was about a mile run down to central park. Then my route was a full lap of the outside of the park running anti-clockwise. Then the run back to the hotel. Crossing the blocks is a nightmare but you soon learn how to gauge the intersections. Once you get into the park it’s fantastic for running. The outer loop seemed to be around 10km with plenty of ups and downs to keep you working. I varied the pace each day between easy and recovery and not a hint of threshold pace on any day.

I enjoyed the trip but I won’t be rushing back. The food was pretty crap and the beer was astronomical in price. I must be getting tight in my old age. Plenty to see and do but it’s not a destination to visit if you’re on a budget. I think I was spoilt living in Sydney for so long!

Sunday, February 28, 2016

It's all about the pace

A couple of belters in here:

Mon - 2.0km up, 12km threshold run 40:00 (3:20’s), 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Tue am – Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 35:22 (3:43's)

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 7.2km

Wed - 2.0km up, 12km threshold run 39:58 (3:20’s), 2.0km down. All up 16.0km

Thu am – Claregalway 9.5km easy run 37:55 (3:59's)

Thu pm - Mayo AC easy run 7.9km

Fri - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 37:08 (3:43's)

Sat - Rest

Sun – New York Central Park 18.2km easy run 1:11:33 (3:56's)

Total for week 94.3km

Well the 2 outdoor threshold runs were as good as I’ve done. A nice hard effort and ticking along feeling good at 3:20 pace. The Thursday one in particular was great – into a headwind the first 6km and then turned and was averaging around 3:18 pace for the last 6km.

I traveled to New York on Saturday so no run. I ventured out to Central Park on Sunday just to blow the cobwebs off and felt like Dustin Hoffman in Marathon Man. A great place for running – cool conditions, not much breeze and plenty to look at. It reminded me a lot of the Bay Run in Sydney – but maybe better.

Sunday, February 21, 2016

A good finish to the week

It felt like I’d run a marathon after the XC:

Mon - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 37:00 (3:42's)

Tue am – Treadmill 10.km recovery run 36:50 (3:41's)

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 10.3km

Wed - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:20 (3:36's)

Thu am – 1.6km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:27 (3:09’s), 1.6km down. All up 13.2km

Thu pm - Mayo AC easy run 6.0km

Fri - Claregalway 9.5km easy run 39:01 (4:06's)

Sat - 4.4km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:15 (3:08’s), 1.0km down. All up 15.4km

Sun – Treadmill 8.1km recovery run 30:00 (3:42's)

Total for week 92.5km


The legs were in bits for the first half of the week. So I didn’t get a session in until Thursday but that went well as did the run on Saturday. That’s great progress – a real tough effort (the XC) and then the pace for the threshold runs suddenly gets a lot quicker.

Sunday, February 14, 2016

Tuam National Inter-Counties XC

The build up to the country:

Mon - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 36:27 (3:39's)

Tue am – 1.6km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:43 (3:10's), 1.0km down. All up 12.6km

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 11.5km

Wed - Claregalway 9.5km easy run 38:55 (4:06's)

Thu – 2.5km up, 4 x 30 secs, 8 x 2 mins off 60 secs, 2.5km down. All up 11.3km

Fri - Claregalway 11.1km recovery run 41:41 (3:45's)

Sat - Rest

Sun – National Inter-Counties 10km XC 14th in 39:20. All up 13.3kms

Total for week 79.3km

The conditions for the country were very sticky. A tough twisty 2km loop with one killer hill. All ground very soft except one section of about 400m where I felt I could actually run. The rest reminded me of my swimming – huge effort but going nowhere. Back to the race – a very poor turnout but a strong team from Galway so a good chance of some bling. The race started and I settled into my running. I didn’t start slow – I think everyone else started too quick. The first lap I was picking off a few runners and my immediate thought was that I wasn’t going to be in the scorers for Galway. After a lap or so I’d picked up several places and my focus was on catching a few Donegal runners up ahead.

My pace throughout was very consistent – within a few seconds each lap. The hill at the start of the lap was a real grind but once up the top and round the corner you had the section I mentioned where I could run a bit. Not much happening apart from plenty of support on the course which was much appreciated. I picked off one Donegal shirt but there was another one I had my eye on. But I didn’t catch him until the last lap. By this time I just wanted it to be over. I managed a strong section and broke away from the Donegal runner and in second half of the lap I started closing in on Mike O’Connor. Another big effort and I went past him as we rounded the last corner for the run to the finish. I just managed to hold him off as you can see from the photo below.

I finished 14th overall and was 4th Galway scorer in a time of 39:20. Not my greatest work but it was a huge effort and I was close to a vomit at the finish. Galway won the team gold medal so a huge achievement for the county. My first ever senior medal! A few beers after and home in time to see Spurs beat Man City. All in all a great day.


Sunday, February 07, 2016

Maree 8km

Another week, another race:

Mon - Treadmill 10.0km recovery run 35:56 (3:36's)

Tue am - 2km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:42 (3:10's), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 8.1km

Wed - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 35:48 (3:46's)

Thu am - 2km up, 4 x 30 secs, 5 x 3 mins off 90 secs, 2km down. All up 9.8km

Thu pm - Mayo AC easy run 3.2km

Fri - Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 54:24 (3:41's)

Sat - Treadmill 10.0km easy run 40:14 (4:17's)

Sun – Maree 8km – 1st in 27:38 (3:27’s). All up 16.0km

Total for week 93.8km

A good week in the build up to the Maree 8km. A threshold run and a speed session both on the treadmill. The 5 x 3 mins were a real killer and the HR went way north on the last couple of efforts. Hanging on at the end of those I can tell you (2% incline at 2:55/km pace).

The Maree 8km was a tough one. Conditions were very cold, wet and breezy and after a quick first km I settled into a steady comfortable effort. No company and I gradually worked away from the chasing field. The first 4km was all into the wind and then it was time to switch-back and run towards all the runners who were coming in the opposite direction. That was fine but I was on the LHS of the road running through lots of puddles and it was nice to finally take a right turn around by the water for some clean road. Through 5km and then a few tough climbs followed and I cruised the last 3km taking the win in 27:38. I think this picture pretty much sums things up (Thanks to John O'Connor):



I enjoyed it in a strange sort of way and good to save myself for the XC next weekend in Tuam where I've been selected on the Galway Team (they must be desperate!). Also good to see the mighty Spurs flying high in the league!

Sunday, January 31, 2016

Get off that treadmill

Weather not great so too much time on the hamster wheel:

Mon - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 35:53 (3:47's)

Tue am - 2km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:58 (3:12's), 2.0km down. All up 14.0km

Tue pm - Tuam AC easy run 10.0km

Wed - Claregalway 9.5km recovery run 37:16 (3:55's)

Thu am - 2km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:51 (3:11's), 1km down. All up 13.0km

Thu pm - Mayo AC easy run 4.1km

Fri - Claregalway 14.8km recovery run 55:23 (3:45's)

Sat - 2km up, 10km treadmill threshold run 31:41 (3:10's), 1km down. All up 14.0km

Sun – Rest day (first of the year)

Total for week 88.9km

Three treadmill threshold runs and getting quicker each time which is good to see. Still a long way off pre-Christmas form where I was down to close to 31 mins flat for 10km but we’ll get there.

Ronnie won the Masters at only 50%. That must really annoy his fellow pros….